Why Coral Reefs are important?

coral important

Coral Reefs are one of the most biologically diverse marine ecosystems on the earth.

These are found in the shallow tropical areas where the seawater is clean, clear, and warm and spreads in a large area having rich species diversity.

Coral Reefs are important due to the following reasons.

1. Ecologically, coral reefs are important because they are the counterpart to the tropical rain forest in terms of biological productivity in the Ocean and species diversity.
2. Coral Reefs are natural protective barriers against erosion and storm surge.
3. They provide habitat for a large variety of plants and animals.
4. Coral reefs provide an accurate long-term record of climate change by helping in determining the climate variability in remote tropical oceans and thus are climatologically important.
5. Coral Reefs provide substrate for mangroves.
6. They help in the formation of associated eco-systems which allow the formation of essential habitats, fisheries, and livelihoods.

Is Ozone a Pollutant?


The simple answer to this question is yes and no.

Ozone is a pollutant when it is found in the Troposphere (also known as ground-level ozone). Surface level ozone is also the third most potent greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide and methane.

On the other hand, Ozone acts as a shield in the Stratosphere where it protects us from harmful Ultra violet radiations of the Sun.

How is Bad Ozone formed?

The Ozone found in the Troposphere is known by different names such as Bad Ozone, Ground Level Ozone, etc. It is man-made ozone found near the surface of the earth (Troposphere).

Bad Ozone is formed during high-temperature conditions of late spring, summer, and early fall, when high levels of ozone are usually formed in the heat of the afternoon and early evening, dissipating during the cooler nights.

The released gases such as nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOC) combine chemically with oxygen to form ozone during sunny days near the surface of the earth.

NOx, CO, and VOCs are known as ozone precursors as they combine with oxygen to form ozone.

This bad ozone combines with Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 to form smog.

Effects of Bad Ozone

Being harmful and a greenhouse gas, Bad Ozone has many ill effects on the environment as well as to the human health.

1. Higher rates of pulmonary (related to lungs) disease.
2. Irritation to the skin and the respiratory system
3. Sufficient ozone, when enters the leaves of a sensitive plant, can reduce photosynthesis and slow the plant growth.
4. Damages some types of materials, especially objects made of rubber.
5. As a potent greenhouse gas, it is largely responsible for the warming of the surface of the earth.

Ozone is found in which layer?


Ozone is a gas that is found in both Stratosphere and Troposphere. Ozone is of 2 types.

One that is found in the lower Stratosphere where it acts as a layer that protects the earth from the harmful Ultra Violet radiations of the Earth.

The other is found near the surface of the earth (Troposphere) where it acts as a pollutant and a potential greenhouse gas.

Layers of Earth Atmosphere

Earth’s atmosphere is broadly divided into 5 layers. These are –

1. Troposphere0 – 13 km
2. Stratosphere13 – 50 km
3. Mesosphere50 – 85 km
4. Ionosphere85 – 700 km
5. Exosphere700 – 10,000 km

What is Article 15 of the Indian Constitution?

article 15

Fundamental Rights are guaranteed to all persons by the constitution of India without any discrimination of caste, religion, sex etc.

These rights entitle an individual to live life with dignity. Fundamental Rights are meant for promoting the idea of democracy.

Originally the constitution provided 7 Fundamental Rights but as of now, there are just 6 Fundamental Rights in force. They are;

  1. Rights to equality (Article 14-18)
  2. Rights to freedom (Article 19-22)
  3. Right against exploitation (Article 23-24)
  4. Right to freedom of religion (Article 25-28)
  5. Cultural and educational rights (Article 29-30)
  6. Rights to constitutional remedies (Article 32)

Article 15 of Indian Constitution

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.

(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to—

(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels, and places of public entertainment; or

(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

(5) Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from making any special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of Article 30.

Features and Provisions of article 15

1. Article 15 states that the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of race, religion, caste, sex, and place of birth.
2. The world “discrimination” refers to an adverse distinction with regard to or to distinguish un-favorable from others while the term ‘only’ means that discrimination can be done on the basis of other grounds.
3. The second provision of the article 15 says that no citizen shall be subjected to any disability, liability, restriction or condition on grounds of any religion, caste, race, sex, place of birth with regard to;
i. Access to shops, public restaurants, hotels, and places of public entertainment.
ii. The use of wells, tanks, bathing Ghats, roads, and places of public resorts maintained wholly or partly by state funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. Worth mentioning that this provision prohibits discrimination by both state and private individuals while the former provision prohibits discrimination only by the state.
4. There are three exceptions to this general rule of non-discrimination;
a. The state is permitted to make any special provisions to women and children.
Example: Reservation of seats for women in the local bodies and provision of free education to children.
b. The state is free to make special arrangements for socially and economically backward peoples or for Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. Example: reservation of seats or fee concession in the public educational institutes.
c. The state can make special provisions for the betterment of the socially and economically backward sections of the society or for the SCs and STs.
Example: Provisions regarding admission in the educational institutions in the private institutes, whether aided or unaided by the state.

Black Soil in India and its importance

black soil

Black soil, also known as ‘Regur Soil’ or the ‘Black Cotton Soil’ is highly productive and fertile soil found in India.

Key features of Black Soil in India

1. Black soil covers most of the Deccan Plateau which includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andra Pradesh, Gujarat, and some parts of Tamil Nadu.
2. These soils are generally clayey, deep, and impermeable (doesn’t allow water to pass through it).
3. The color of these soil ranges from deep black to grey.
4. They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried.
5. This gives rise to wide cracks during the dry season and hence these soils are kind of ‘self ploughing’ soils.
6. Black soil displays the characteristics of slow ‘absorption’ and a slow ‘loss of moisture’ which helps in retaining moisture for a very long time and thus helps the crops, especially, the rain-fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season.
7. The black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia, and alumina. They also contain potash.
8. They lack in phosphorous, nitrogen, and organic matter.

What is the Preamble of the Indian Constitution?


You must have heard about the term “Preamble of the Indian constitution” many times while studying Politics.

In this article, we will extensively cover all the major aspects of the Preamble to the Indian Constitution and understand why it is so important.

What is Preamble?

The term ‘preamble’ refers to the introduction or preface to the Constitution. It is an introductory text that contains the summary or the essence of the Constitution.

Text of the Preamble of the Indian constitution.

Preamble of the Indian Constitution in its present form reads:

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;


Preamble of Indian Constitution
source: Wikipedia

Components Of the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

1. Source of authority of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India.

2. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be a socialist, secular, secular, democratic and republican nation.

3. Objectives of the Indian Constitution: It states that the constitution has objectives of Justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.

4. Date of Adoption of the Indian Constitution: It mentions November 26, 1949, as the date of adoption of the Indian Constitution.

Some Facts related to Preamble.

1. The Preamble to the Indian Constitution is based on the ‘Objectives Resolution’ which was drafted and moved by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on December 13, 1946, and was adopted by the constituent assembly on January 22, 1947.

2. The preamble is an integral part of our Constitution.

3. The preamble has been amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1976), which added three new words namely – socialist, secular and integrity.

4. The American Constitution was the first to begin with a Preamble. Both the American and the Indian Preamble begins with WE, THE PEOPLE.

5. The preamble-page, along with other pages of the original Constitution of India, was designed and decorated solely by renowned painter Beohar Rammanohar Sinha of Jabalpur (Image above).

Some must-read books on The Indian Constitution –

Introduction to the Constitution of India by D D Basu

The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of A Nation (Classic Reissue) by Austin Granville

Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth

Important terms in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Following are the most important terms in the preamble:


Sovereign means the independent authority of a State. It means that it has the power to legislate on any subject; and that it is not subject to the control of any other State or external power.

India is a sovereign country and no external power can dictate the government of India about its functions.

India is externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government that is directly elected by the people from the people itself and makes laws that govern the people.


The term socialist as used in the preamble refers to democratic socialism which is the achievement of socialist goals through democratic, evolutionary and non-violent means.

It is an economic philosophy where means of production and distribution are owned by the State thus emphasizing social equality.

India has adopted a system of a mixed economy where the public and private sector co-exists.


Secular means that the State is neither allied with nor against any particular religion.

In other words, Indian State has no particular religion and all persons will be equally entitled to the freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practice and propagate the religion of their choice. (SR Bommai and Others v Union of India, AIR 1994 SC 1918).


The word ‘democratic’ not only refers to political but also to social & economic democracy.

The people of India elect their governments by a system of universal adult franchise, popularly known as “one person one vote”. Every citizen of India 18 years of age and above and not otherwise debarred by law is entitled to vote.

The government is elected by the people, from the people, and for the people.


In a republican form of government, the head of state is elected directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure.

This is contrary to the monarchy system of government where the head of the state is appointed on the hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne.

Thus, this word denotes a government where no one holds public power as a proprietary right. India has a President who is elected and has a fixed term of office.


India seeks to ensure social, economic and political justice to ensure equality to its citizens.

(i) Social Justice:

Social Justice means the absence of socially privileged classes in the society and no discrimination against any citizen on grounds of caste, creed, color, religion, gender or place of birth. India stands for eliminating all forms of exploitation from society.

(ii) Economic Justice:

Economic Justice means no discrimination between man and woman on the basis of income, wealth and economic status. It stands for equitable distribution of wealth, economic equality, the end of monopolistic control over means of production and distribution, decentralization of economic resources, and the securing of adequate opportunities to all for earning their living.

(iii) Political Justice:

Political justice means equal, free and fair opportunities to the people for participation in the political process. It stands for the grant of equal political rights to all the people without discrimination. The Constitution of India provides for a liberal democracy in which all the people have the right and freedom to participate.


The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom of the activities of Indian nationals. It implies the absence of restraints or domination on the activities of an individual such as freedom from slavery, imprisonment, etc.

However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.


Equality means that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination.

The Preamble provides for equality of status and opportunity to all the people of the country. Here, the constitution provides social, economic and political equality to all the citizens. All are equal before the law.


Fraternity means a feeling of brotherhood and a sense of belonging with the country among all the citizens of the State. It leaves no room for regionalism, communalism, casteism, etc., which hinders the unity of the State.

The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. The word ‘integrity’ has been added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976).

Amendments in Preamble of the Indian Constitution

The Preamble was amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1976, which added three new words namely – socialist, secular and integrity. The Preamble has been amended only once till now.

Hence, the Preamble of the Indian constitution is a powerful piece of text that contains the basic ideals, objectives and the grand and noble vision of the Constituent Assembly. It reflects the vision and aspirations of the founding fathers of the Constitution which embodies the political, moral and religious fundamental values, on which the constitution is based.


preamble of Indian Constitution