Salient Features of Indian Constitution

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Indian Constitution is a magnificent piece of document which is unique and has several salient features that distinguish it from the constitutions of other countries. Salient Features of Indian Constitution Lengthiest Written Constitution The Constitution of India is the lengthiest of all written constitutions of the world. It contains 395 articles 22 parts and 12 … Read more

What is Article 15 of the Indian Constitution?

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Fundamental Rights are guaranteed to all persons by the constitution of India without any discrimination of caste, religion, sex etc.

These rights entitle an individual to live life with dignity. Fundamental Rights are meant for promoting the idea of democracy.

Originally the constitution provided 7 Fundamental Rights but as of now, there are just 6 Fundamental Rights in force. They are;

  1. Rights to equality (Article 14-18)
  2. Rights to freedom (Article 19-22)
  3. Right against exploitation (Article 23-24)
  4. Right to freedom of religion (Article 25-28)
  5. Cultural and educational rights (Article 29-30)
  6. Rights to constitutional remedies (Article 32)

Article 15 of Indian Constitution

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.

(2) No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them, be subject to any disability, liability, restriction or condition with regard to—

(a) access to shops, public restaurants, hotels, and places of public entertainment; or

(b) the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of State funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.

(3) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.

(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

(5) Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from making any special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of Article 30.

Features and Provisions of article 15

1. Article 15 states that the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of race, religion, caste, sex, and place of birth.
2. The world “discrimination” refers to an adverse distinction with regard to or to distinguish un-favorable from others while the term ‘only’ means that discrimination can be done on the basis of other grounds.
3. The second provision of the article 15 says that no citizen shall be subjected to any disability, liability, restriction or condition on grounds of any religion, caste, race, sex, place of birth with regard to;
i. Access to shops, public restaurants, hotels, and places of public entertainment.
ii. The use of wells, tanks, bathing Ghats, roads, and places of public resorts maintained wholly or partly by state funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. Worth mentioning that this provision prohibits discrimination by both state and private individuals while the former provision prohibits discrimination only by the state.
4. There are three exceptions to this general rule of non-discrimination;
a. The state is permitted to make any special provisions to women and children.
Example: Reservation of seats for women in the local bodies and provision of free education to children.
b. The state is free to make special arrangements for socially and economically backward peoples or for Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes. Example: reservation of seats or fee concession in the public educational institutes.
c. The state can make special provisions for the betterment of the socially and economically backward sections of the society or for the SCs and STs.
Example: Provisions regarding admission in the educational institutions in the private institutes, whether aided or unaided by the state.

What is the Preamble of the Indian Constitution?

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You must have heard about the term “Preamble of the Indian constitution” many times while studying Politics.

In this article, we will extensively cover all the major aspects of the Preamble to the Indian Constitution and understand why it is so important.

What is Preamble?

The term ‘preamble’ refers to the introduction or preface to the Constitution. It is an introductory text that contains the summary or the essence of the Constitution.

Text of the Preamble of the Indian constitution.

Preamble of the Indian Constitution in its present form reads:

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this 26th day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

Preamble of Indian Constitution
source: Wikipedia

Components Of the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

1. Source of authority of the Indian Constitution: The Preamble states that the Constitution derives its authority from the people of India.

2. Nature of Indian State: It declares India to be a socialist, secular, secular, democratic and republican nation.

3. Objectives of the Indian Constitution: It states that the constitution has objectives of Justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity.

4. Date of Adoption of the Indian Constitution: It mentions November 26, 1949, as the date of adoption of the Indian Constitution.

Some Facts related to Preamble.

1. The Preamble to the Indian Constitution is based on the ‘Objectives Resolution’ which was drafted and moved by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru on December 13, 1946, and was adopted by the constituent assembly on January 22, 1947.

2. The preamble is an integral part of our Constitution.

3. The preamble has been amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1976), which added three new words namely – socialist, secular and integrity.

4. The American Constitution was the first to begin with a Preamble. Both the American and the Indian Preamble begins with WE, THE PEOPLE.

5. The preamble-page, along with other pages of the original Constitution of India, was designed and decorated solely by renowned painter Beohar Rammanohar Sinha of Jabalpur (Image above).

Some must-read books on The Indian Constitution –

Introduction to the Constitution of India by D D Basu

The Indian Constitution: Cornerstone of A Nation (Classic Reissue) by Austin Granville

Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth

Important terms in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Following are the most important terms in the preamble:

Sovereign

Sovereign means the independent authority of a State. It means that it has the power to legislate on any subject; and that it is not subject to the control of any other State or external power.

India is a sovereign country and no external power can dictate the government of India about its functions.

India is externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally, it has a free government that is directly elected by the people from the people itself and makes laws that govern the people.

Socialist

The term socialist as used in the preamble refers to democratic socialism which is the achievement of socialist goals through democratic, evolutionary and non-violent means.

It is an economic philosophy where means of production and distribution are owned by the State thus emphasizing social equality.

India has adopted a system of a mixed economy where the public and private sector co-exists.

Secular

Secular means that the State is neither allied with nor against any particular religion.

In other words, Indian State has no particular religion and all persons will be equally entitled to the freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practice and propagate the religion of their choice. (SR Bommai and Others v Union of India, AIR 1994 SC 1918).

Democratic

The word ‘democratic’ not only refers to political but also to social & economic democracy.

The people of India elect their governments by a system of universal adult franchise, popularly known as “one person one vote”. Every citizen of India 18 years of age and above and not otherwise debarred by law is entitled to vote.

The government is elected by the people, from the people, and for the people.

Republic

In a republican form of government, the head of state is elected directly or indirectly, for a fixed tenure.

This is contrary to the monarchy system of government where the head of the state is appointed on the hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne.

Thus, this word denotes a government where no one holds public power as a proprietary right. India has a President who is elected and has a fixed term of office.

Justice

India seeks to ensure social, economic and political justice to ensure equality to its citizens.

(i) Social Justice:

Social Justice means the absence of socially privileged classes in the society and no discrimination against any citizen on grounds of caste, creed, color, religion, gender or place of birth. India stands for eliminating all forms of exploitation from society.

(ii) Economic Justice:

Economic Justice means no discrimination between man and woman on the basis of income, wealth and economic status. It stands for equitable distribution of wealth, economic equality, the end of monopolistic control over means of production and distribution, decentralization of economic resources, and the securing of adequate opportunities to all for earning their living.

(iii) Political Justice:

Political justice means equal, free and fair opportunities to the people for participation in the political process. It stands for the grant of equal political rights to all the people without discrimination. The Constitution of India provides for a liberal democracy in which all the people have the right and freedom to participate.

Liberty

The idea of Liberty refers to the freedom of the activities of Indian nationals. It implies the absence of restraints or domination on the activities of an individual such as freedom from slavery, imprisonment, etc.

However, liberty does not mean freedom to do anything, and it must be exercised within the constitutional limits.

Equality

Equality means that no section of the society enjoys special privileges and individuals are provided with adequate opportunities without any discrimination.

The Preamble provides for equality of status and opportunity to all the people of the country. Here, the constitution provides social, economic and political equality to all the citizens. All are equal before the law.

Fraternity

Fraternity means a feeling of brotherhood and a sense of belonging with the country among all the citizens of the State. It leaves no room for regionalism, communalism, casteism, etc., which hinders the unity of the State.

The Preamble declares that fraternity has to assure two things—the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation. The word ‘integrity’ has been added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976).

Amendments in Preamble of the Indian Constitution

The Preamble was amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1976, which added three new words namely – socialist, secular and integrity. The Preamble has been amended only once till now.

Hence, the Preamble of the Indian constitution is a powerful piece of text that contains the basic ideals, objectives and the grand and noble vision of the Constituent Assembly. It reflects the vision and aspirations of the founding fathers of the Constitution which embodies the political, moral and religious fundamental values, on which the constitution is based.

Info-graphic

preamble of Indian Constitution

Chief Ministers and Governors of India(Updated 2020)!

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In this post, we will list all the chief ministers and governors of every state of the union of India.

The list of chief ministers and governors of India will be State-wise.

Before we list all the chief ministers and governors of the Indian Union, let us try to answer some of the most common questions.

Who is the Chief Minister?

Chief Minister, in the Republic of India, is the head of the government of each of 28 states and 3 Union Territories (Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir and Puducherry).

After the abrogation of article 370 of the Indian Constitution, Jammu & Kashmir was converted into a Union territory with a Lt. Governor and a Chief Minister (currently vacant as of 1 November, 2019) running the government.

According to the Constitution of India, at the state level, the governor is de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. This means that chief minister, like the Prime Minister (at center), exercise the real power and authority, and along with his council of ministers, is collectively responsible to the state assembly.

Who is the Governor?

Governor, in the Republic of India, acts as the nominal head of each state/Union territory.

In India, a lieutenant governor is in charge of a union territory. However, the rank is present only in the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi and Puducherry (the other territories have an administrator appointed, who is an IAS officer or a retired judge of a court )

The Governors and Lieutenant Governors/Administrators of the states and union territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level. The governors and lieutenant governors are appointed by the president for a term of five years.

Chief Ministers of the Indian States/UT

Andhra Pradesh

Chief Minister – Shri YS Jagan Mohan Reddy

Arunachal Pradesh

Chief Minister – Shri Pema Khandu

Assam

Chief Minister – Shri Sarbananda Sonowal

Bihar

Chief Minister – Shri Nitish Kumar

Chhattisgarh

Chief Minister – Shri Bhupesh Baghel

Delhi (NCT)

Chief Minister – Shri Arvind Kejriwal

Goa

Chief Minister – Shri Pramod Sawant

Gujarat

Chief Minister – Shri Vijaybhai R. Rupani

Haryana

Chief Minister – Shri Manohar Lal

Himachal Pradesh

Chief Minister – Shri Jairam Thakur

Jharkhand

Chief Minister – Shri Raghubar Das

Karnataka

Chief Minister – Sri B. S. Yediyurappa

Kerala

Chief Minister – Shri Pinarayi Vijayan

Madhya Pradesh

Chief Minister – Shri Shivraj Singh Chouhan

Maharashtra

Chief Minister – Shri Uddhav Thackeray

Manipur

Chief Minister – Shri N. Biren Singh

Meghalaya

Chief Minister – Shri Conrad Kongkal Sangma

Mizoram

Chief Minister – Shri Pu Zoramthanga

Nagaland

Chief Minister – Shri Neiphiu Rio

Odisha

Chief Minister – Shri Naveen Patnaik

Puducherry (UT)

Chief Minister – Shri. V. Narayanasamy

Punjab

Chief Minister – Shri Capt. Amarinder Singh

Rajasthan

Chief Minister – Shri Ashok Gehlot

Sikkim

Chief Minister – Shri PS Golay

Tamil Nadu

Chief Minister – Thiru Edappadi K. Palaniswami

Telangana

Chief Minister – Shri K Chandrasekhar Rao

Tripura

Chief Minister – Shri Biplab Kumar Deb

Uttar Pradesh

Chief Minister – Shri Yogi Aditya Nath

Uttarakhand

Chief Minister – Shri Trivendra Singh Rawat

West Bengal

Chief Minister – Km. Mamata Banerjee


Governors of the Indian States/UT


Andhra Pradesh

Governor – Shri Biswa Bhusan Harichandan

Arunachal Pradesh

Governor – Brig. (Dr.) B. D. Mishra (Retd.)

Assam

Governor – Prof. Jagdish Mukhi

Bihar

Governor – Shri Phagu Chauhan

Chhattisgarh

Governor – Sushri Anusuiya Uikey

Delhi (NCT)

Lt. Governor – Shri Anil Baijal

Goa

Governor – Shri Satya Pal Malik

Gujarat

Governor – Shri Acharya Dev Vrat

Haryana

Governor – Shri Satyadev Narayan Arya

Himachal Pradesh

Governor – Shri Bandaru Dattatraya

Jharkhand

Governor – Shrimati Droupadi Murmu

Karnataka

Governor – Shri Vajubhai Vala

Kerala

Governor – Shri Arif Mohammed Khan

Madhya Pradesh

Governor – Shri Lal Ji Tandon

Maharashtra

Governor – Shri Bhagat Singh Koshyari

Manipur

Governor – Shri Padmanabha Balkrishna Acharya (Add. Charge)

Meghalaya

Governor – Shri Tathagata Roy

Mizoram

Governor – Shri P.S. Sreedharan Pillai

Nagaland

Governor – Shri R. N. Ravi

Odisha

Governor – Prof. Ganeshi Lal

Puducherry (UT)

Lt. Governor – Dr. Kiran Bedi, I.P.S, (Retd.)

Punjab

Governor – Shri V.P. Singh Badnore

Rajasthan

Governor – Shri Kalraj Mishra

Sikkim

Governor – Shri Ganga Prasad

Tamil Nadu

Governor – Shri Banwarilal Purohit

Telangana

Governor – Dr. Tamilisai Soundararajan

Tripura

Governor – Shri Ramesh Bais

Uttar Pradesh

Governor – Smt. Anandiben Patel

Uttarakhand

Governor – Smt. Baby Rani Maurya

West Bengal

Governor – Shri Jagdeep Dhankhar

All Articles of Indian Constitution: Ultimate List!

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In this post, we are going to cover all the articles of the Indian constitution in a brief way.

This post was written to solve the problem of the unavailability of well-sorted articles of the Indian constitution in one place.

Since it covers all the articles of the Indian Constitution (1-395) at present, this is going to be a very long article.

Let’s start with the Preamble Of the Indian Constitution.

Preamble Of the Indian Constitution.

Preamble of the Indian Constitution in its present form reads:

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this 26th day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

List Of All Articles Of the Indian constitution

PART I: THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
1 Name and territory of the Union.
2 Admission or establishment of new States.
2A [This article was Repealed.]
3 Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries, or names of existing States.
4 Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters.

PART II: CITIZENSHIP
5 Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution.
6 Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
7 Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan.
8 Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India.
9 Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens.
10 Continuance of the rights of citizenship.
11 Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

PART III : FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
General
12 Definition.
13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
Right to Equality
14 Equality before law.
15 Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
16 Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
17 Abolition of Untouchability.
18 Abolition of titles.
Right to Freedom
19 Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
20 Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
21 Protection of life and personal liberty.
22 Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
Right against Exploitation
23 Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
24 Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.
Right to Freedom of Religion
25 Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
26 Freedom to manage religious affairs.
27 Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
28 Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions.
Cultural and Educational Rights
29 Protection of interests of minorities.
30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
31 [Repealed.]
Saving of Certain Laws
31A Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc.
31B Validation of certain Acts and Regulations.
31C Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles.
31D [Repealed.]
Right to Constitutional Remedies
32 Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part.
32A [Repealed.]
33 Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc.
34 Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area.
35 Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part.

PART IV : DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
36 Definition.
37 Application of the principles contained in this Part.
38 State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people.
39 Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.
39A Equal justice and free legal aid.
40 Organisation of village panchayats.
41 Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
42 Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
43 Living wage, etc., for workers.
43A Participation of workers in management of industries.
44 Uniform civil code for the citizens.
45 Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
46 Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
47 Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
48 Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
48A Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life.
49 Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
50 Separation of judiciary from executive.
51 Promotion of international peace and security.

PART IVA : FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
51A Fundamental duties.

PART V: THE UNION
CHAPTER I: THE EXECUTIVE
The President and Vice-President
52 The President of India.
53 Executive power of the Union.
54 Election of President.
55 Manner of election of President.
56 Term of office of President.
57 Eligibility for re-election.
58 Qualifications for election as President.
59 Conditions of President’s office.
60 Oath or affirmation by the President.
61 Procedure for impeachment of the President.
62 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
63 The Vice-President of India.
64 The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.
65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President.
66 Election of Vice-President.
67 Term of office of Vice-President.
68 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy.
69 Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.
70 Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies.
71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President.
72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
73 Extent of executive power of the Union.
Council of Ministers
74 Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.
75 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Attorney-General for India
76 Attorney-General for India.
Conduct of Government Business
77 Conduct of business of the Government of India.
78 Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.

CHAPTER II : PARLIAMENT
General
79 Constitution of Parliament.
80 Composition of the Council of States.
81 Composition of the House of the People.
82 Readjustment after each census.
83 Duration of Houses of Parliament.
84 Qualification for membership of Parliament.
85 Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution.
86 Right of President to address and send messages to Houses.
87 Special address by the President.
88 Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses.
Officers of Parliament
89 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States.
90 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman.
91 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.
92 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
93 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People .
94 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
95 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.
96 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
97 Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
98 Secretariat of Parliament.
Conduct of Business
99 Oath or affirmation by members.
100 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.
Disqualifications of Members
101 Vacation of seats.
102 Disqualifications for membership.
103 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
104 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members
105 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof.
106 Salaries and allowances of members.
Legislative Procedure
107 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
108 Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases.
109 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
110 Definition of “Money Bills”.
111 Assent to Bills.
Procedure in Financial Matters
112 Annual financial statement.
113 Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.
114 Appropriation Bills.
115 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
116 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
117 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
Procedure Generally
118 Rules of procedure.
119 Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business.
120 Language to be used in Parliament.
121 Restriction on discussion in Parliament.
122 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament.

CHAPTER III: LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT
123 Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.

CHAPTER IV: THE UNION JUDICIARY
124 Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court.
125 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
126 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
127 Appointment of ad hoc judges.
128 Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court.
129 Supreme Court to be a court of record.
130 Seat of Supreme Court.
131 Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
131A [Repealed.]
132 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases.
133 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to Civil matters.
134 Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters.
134A Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court.
135 Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court.
136 Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court.
137 Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court.
138 Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
139 Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs.
139A Transfer of certain cases.
140 Ancillary powers of Supreme Court.
141 Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.
142 Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc.
143 Power of President to consult Supreme Court.
144 Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court.
144A [Repealed.]
145 Rules of Court, etc.
146 Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court.
147 Interpretation.

CHAPTER V: COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA
148 Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
149 Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.
150 Form of accounts of the Union and of the States.
151 Audit reports.

PART VI: THE STATES
CHAPTER I: GENERAL
152 Definition.

CHAPTER II: THE EXECUTIVE
The Governor
153 Governors of States.
154 Executive power of State.
155 Appointment of Governor.
156 Term of office of Governor.
157 Qualifications for appointment as Governor.
158 Conditions of Governor’s office
159 Oath or affirmation by the Governor.
160 Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies.
161 Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
162 Extent of executive power of State.
Council of Ministers
163 Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor.
164 Other provisions as to Ministers.
The Advocate-General for the State
165 Advocate-General for the State.
Conduct of Government Business
166 Conduct of business of the Government of a State.
167 Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.

CHAPTER III: THE STATE LEGISLATURE
General
168 Constitution of Legislatures in States.
169 Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.
170 Composition of the Legislative Assemblies.
171 Composition of the Legislative Councils.
172 Duration of State Legislatures.
173 Qualification for membership of the State Legislature.
174 Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution.
175 Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses.
176 Special address by the Governor.
177 Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses.
Officers of the State Legislature
178 The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.
179 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
180 Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker.
181 The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
182 The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council.
183 Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman.
184 Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.
185 The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.
186 Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman.
187 Secretariat of State Legislature.
Conduct of Business
188 Oath or affirmation by members.
189 Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum.
Disqualifications of Members
190 Vacation of seats.
191 Disqualifications for membership.
192 Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members.
193 Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified.
Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members
194 Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof.
195 Salaries and allowances of members.
Legislative Procedure
196 Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.
197 Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.
198 Special procedure in respect of Money Bills.
199 Definition of “Money Bills”.
200 Assent to Bills.
201 Bills reserved for consideration.
Procedure in Financial Matters
202 Annual financial statement.
203 Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates.
204 Appropriation Bills.
205 Supplementary, additional or excess grants.
206 Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
207 Special provisions as to financial Bills.
Procedure Generally
208 Rules of procedure.
209 Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business.
210 Language to be used in the Legislature.
211 Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.
212 Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.

CHAPTER IV : LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR
213 Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.

CHAPTER V : THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES
214 High Courts for States.
215 High Courts to be courts of record.
216 Constitution of High Courts.
217 Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.
218 Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts.
219 Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.
220 Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.
221 Salaries, etc., of Judges.
222 Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.
223 Appointment of acting Chief Justice.
224 Appointment of additional and acting Judges.
224A Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.
225 Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.
226 Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
226A [Repealed..]
227 Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.
228 Transfer of certain cases to High Court.
228A [Repealed.]
229 Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.
230 Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.
231 Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.

CHAPTER VI : SUBORDINATE COURTS
233 Appointment of district judges.
233A Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges.
234 Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.
235 Control over subordinate courts.
236 Interpretation.
237 Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.

PART VII : THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE
238 [Repealed.]

PART VIII : THE UNION TERRITORIES
239 Administration of Union territories.
239A Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.
239A Special provisions with respect to Delhi.
239AA Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.
239AB Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.
240 Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.
241 High Courts for Union territories.
242 [Repealed.]

PART IX : THE PANCHAYATS
243 Definitions.
243A Gram Sabha.
243B Constitution of Panchayats.
243C Composition of Panchayats.
243D Reservation of seats.
243E Duration of Panchayats, etc.
243F Disqualifications for membership.
243G Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats.
243H Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats.
243-I Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position.
243J Audit of accounts of Pachayats.
243K Elections to the Panchayats.
243L Application to Union territories.
243M Part not to apply to certain areas.
243N Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats.
243-O Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.

PART IXA : THE MUNICIPALITIES
243P Definitions.
243Q Constitution of Municipalities.
243R Composition of Municipalities.
243S Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.
243T Reservation of seats.
243U Duration of Municipalities, etc.
243V Disqualifications for membership.
243W Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.
243 Finance Commission.
243Z Audit of accounts of Municipalities.
243ZA Elections to the Municipalities.
243ZB Application to Union territories.
243ZC Part not to apply to certain areas.
243ZD Committee for district planning.
243ZE Committee for Metropolitan planning.
243ZF Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.
243ZG Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters.

PART X : THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS
244 Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas.
244A Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor.

PART XI : RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I : LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS
Distribution of Legislative Powers

245 Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
246 Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
247 Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts.
248 Residuary powers of legislation.
249 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest.
250 Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
251 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States.
252 Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State.
253 Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.
254 Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States.
255 Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only.

CHAPTER II : ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS
General

256 Obligation of States and the Union.
257 Control of the Union over States in certain cases.
257A [Repealed.]
258 Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.
258A Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.
259 [Repealed.]
260 Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India.
261 Public acts, records and judicial proceedings.
Disputes relating to Waters
262 Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys.
Co-ordination between States
263 Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council.

PART XII : FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS
CHAPTER I : FINANCE
General
264 Interpretation.
265 Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law.
266 Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States.
267 Contingency Fund.
Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States
268 Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State.
269 Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States.
270 Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States.
271 Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union.
272 [Repealed.]
273 Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products.
274 Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested.
275 Grants from the Union to certain States.
276 Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.
277 Savings.
278 [Repealed.]
279 Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc.
280 Finance Commission.
281 Recommendations of the Finance Commission.
Miscellaneous financial provisions
282 Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.
283 Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts.
284 Custody of suitors’ deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts.
285 Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation.
286 Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods.
287 Exemption from taxes on electricity.
288 Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases.
289 Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation.
290 Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions.
290A Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds.
291 [Repealed.]

CHAPTER II : BORROWING
292 Borrowing by the Government of India.
293 Borrowing by States.

CHAPTER III : PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS
294 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases.
295 Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases.
296 Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia.
297 Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union.
298 Power to carry on trade, etc.
299 Contracts.
300 Suits and proceedings.

CHAPTER IV : RIGHT TO PROPERTY
300A Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law.

PART XIII : TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA
301 Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.
302 Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse.
303 Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce.
304 Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States.
305 Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies.
306 [Repealed.]
307 Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304.

PART XIV : SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I : SERVICES
308 Interpretation.
309 Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State.
310 Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State.
311 Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.
312 All-India services.
312A Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services.
313 Transitional provisions.
314 [Repeated.]

CHAPTER II : PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS
315 Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States.
316 Appointment and term of office of members.
317 Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission.
318 Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.
319 Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members.
320 Functions of Public Service Commissions.
321 Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.
322 Expenses of Public Service Commissions.
323 Reports of Public Service Commissions.

PART XIVA: TRIBUNALS
323A Administrative tribunals.
323B Tribunals for other matters.

PART XV: ELECTIONS
324 Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
325 No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex.
326 Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
327 Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures.
328 Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature.
329 Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
329A [Repealed.]

PART XVI: SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES
330 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People.
331 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People.
332 Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
333 Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States.
334 Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years.
335 Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.
336 Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services.
337 Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian Community.
338 National Commission for Scheduled Castes.
338A National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
339 Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes.
340 Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
341 Scheduled Castes.
342 Scheduled Tribes.

PART XVII: OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
CHAPTER I: LANGUAGE OF THE UNION
343 Official language of the Union.
344 Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language.

CHAPTER II: REGIONAL LANGUAGES
345 Official language or languages of a State.
346 Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union.
347 Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State.

CHAPTER III: LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC.
348 Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.
349 Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language.

CHAPTER IV: SPECIAL DIRECTIVES
350 Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances.
350A Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.
350B Special Officer for linguistic minorities.
351 Directive for development of the Hindi language.

PART XVIII: EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
352 Proclamation of Emergency.
353 Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.
354 Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
355 Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance.
356 Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States.
357 Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.
358 Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.
359 Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies.
359A [Repealed.]
360 Provisions as to financial emergency.

PART XIX: MISCELLANEOUS
361 Protection of President and Governors and Rajprakukhs.
361A Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures.
361B Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post.
362 [Repealed.]
363 Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc.
363A Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished.
364 Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes.
365 Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union.
366 Definitions.
367 Interpretation.

PART XX: AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
368 Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor.

PART XXI: TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS
369 Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List.
370 Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
371 Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
371A Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.
371B Special provision with respect to the State of Assam.
371C Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur.
371D Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.
371E Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh.
371F Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim.
371G Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
371H Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh.
371-I Special provision with respect to the State of Goa.
372 Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation.
372A Power of the President to adapt laws.
373 Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases.
374 Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council.
375 Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution.
376 Provisions as to Judges of High Courts.
377 Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
378 Provisions as to Public Service Commissions.
378A Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly.
379-391 [Repealed.]
392 Power of the President to remove difficulties.

PART XXII: SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS
393 Short title.
394 Commencement.
394A Authoritative text in the Hindi language.
395 Repeals.

This is the ultimate list of all the articles of the Indian Constitution.

We will try to update the list frequently adding or replacing difficult words and text with simpler ones so that it becomes more easy to understand all the articles of the Indian Constitution.

Also, we will try to include all the schedules of the Indian Constitution as well in this post to make it even more resourceful.

Important Acts under the Crown Rule in India

crown

After the Acts to regulate the affairs of East India Company (1773 – 1858) were passed, the British government abolished the East India Company and transferred the powers of government, territories, and revenues to the British Crown.

This was the consequence of the Revolt of 1857 also known as Sepoy Mutiny.

This post will list all the important Acts and their features that were introduced under the Crown Rule in a precise way.

Government Of India Act 1858

This act marked the starting of Crown Rule in India wherein the British government strengthen its control over the Indian Administration.

The main features of this act were –

1. The Governor-General of India was now designated as the Viceroy of India working under the British Crown (Lord Canning became to first Viceroy of India)
2. It ended the system of double government by abolishing the Board of Control and Court of Directors.
3. A new office, Secretary of State for India, was created to control the Indian administration. He was a member of British cabinet and responsible to the British Parliament.
4. It established a 15 member advisory council to assist the secretary of state for India who acted as Chairman.
5. It constituted the secretary of state-in-council as a body corporate, capable of suing and being sued in India and in England.

Indian Councils Act of 1861, 1892 and 1909

Indian Councils act of 1861 , 1892 and 1909 were introduced to include Indians in the administrative machinery of the country.

The main features of this act were –

Indian Councils Act of 1861
1. It provided that the viceroy should nominate some Indians as non-official members of his expanded council. Lord Canning in 1862, nominated (to legislative council) Raja of Benaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao.
2. This Act initiated the process of decentralization by restoring the legislative powers to the Bombay and Madras Presidencies (which were taken away in Regulating Act of 1773)
3. New legislative councils for Bengal, North-Western Provinces, and Punjab, were established in 1862, 1886, and 1897 respectively under this act.
4. It also gave recognition to the ‘portfolio‘ system, introduced by Lord Canning in 1859.
5. It empowered the Viceroy to issue ordinances without the agreement of the legislative council, during an emergency. The life of such an ordinance was six months.
Indian Councils Act of 1892
1. It increased the additional (non-official) members but maintained the majority of Official members.
2. The legislative can now discuss budget and address questions to the executive.
3. It provided for the ‘nomination‘ of some non-official members of the (a) Central Legislative Council by the viceroy on the recommendation of the provincial legislative councils and the Bengal Chamber of Commerce, and (b) that of the Provincial legislative councils by the Governors on the recommendation of the district boards, municipalities, universities, trade associations, zamindars, and chambers.
Indian Councils Act of 1909
1. Also known as Morley-Minto Reforms.
2. It considerably increased the size of the legislative councils, both Central and provincial. The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform.
3. Official members were still in majority in the Central Legislative Council but allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority.
4. It enlarged the deliberative functions of the legislative councils at both levels. For example, members were allowed to ask supplementary questions, move resolutions on the budget, and so on.
5. It provided for the first time for the association of Indians with the Executive Council of the Viceroy and Governors. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member.
6. This act legalized communalism by introducing a system of communal representation for Muslims by accepting the concept of ‘separate electorate’. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. Lord Minto came to be known as Father of Communal Electorate.
7. Separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities, and zamindars were also provided.

Government of India Act 1919

This act, also known as Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms came into force in 1921.

The main features of this act were –

1. It separated the Central and provincial subjects.
2. Introduced “Dyarchy”, a system of dual governance. Provincial subjects were divided into 2 parts – transferred and reserved. Transferred subjects to be administered by the governor with the aid of ministers responsible to the Legislative Council. The reserved subjects were to be administered by the governor and his executive council without being responsible to the Legislative Council.
3. Bicameralism and direct elections were introduced. The legislative council was divided into Upper House (Council of State) and Lower House (Legislative assembly) with most members chosen by direct elections.
4. Three out of six members of Viceroy’s executive council were to be Indian.
5. The Communal representation was extended further by providing separate electorates for Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo-Indians, and Europeans.
6. It created a new office of the High Commissioner for India in London.
7. It provided for the establishment of a public service commission (was set up in 1926).
8. It separated, for the first time, provincial budget from the Central budget and authorized the provincial legislatures to enact their budgets.

Government of India Act of 1935

This Act became an important milestone in the history of Indian Independence.

The main features of this act were –

1. The Act provided for the establishment of an All India Federation. Divided the powers into 3 lists – Federal, Provincial, and Concurrent. Residuary powers were given to Viceroy. This federation never came into force.
2. It Abolishued Dyarchy and introduced Provincial Autonomy in its place.
3. It provided for Dyarchy at the center but this provision never came into force.
4. Introduced bicameralism in six out of eleven provinces (Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Bihar, Assam and the United Provinces) but with many restrictions.
5. Further extended the principle of communal representation by providing separate electorates for depressed classes (scheduled castes), women, and labor (workers).
6. Abolished Council of India set up under the Government of India Act 1858.
7. The voting rights were extended to about 10 percent of the total population.
8. It provided for the establishment of a Reserve Bank of India to control the currency and credit of the country.
9. It provided for the establishment of a Federal Court, which was set up in 1937.

Indian Independence Act 1947

After the British announcement of free India, this act was formulated .

The main features of this act were –

1. It ended the British rule in India and declared India as an independent and sovereign state from August 15, 1947.
2. Provided for the partition of India and the creation of two independent dominions of India and Pakistan.
3. It abolished the office of the viceroy and provided for each dominion, a governor-general, who was to be appointed by the British King on the advice of the Dominion Cabinet (Lord Mountbatten became first governor-general on India).
4. Abolished the office of the secretary of state for India and transferred his functions to the secretary of state for Commonwealth Affairs.
5. It granted freedom to the Indian princely states either to join the Dominion of India or Domain ion of Pakistan or to remain independent.
6. It provided for the governance according to the Government of India Act 1935 till the new constitution is framed.
7. It deprived the British Monarch of his right to veto bills or ask for reservation of certain bills for his approval. But, this right was reserved for Governor-General.
8. It designated the Governor-General of India and provincial Governors as Constitutional (nominal) heads of the state acting on the advice of the respective council of ministers in all matters.